In part 4 of our “Gardening through the Decades” series, we go from the glittering excess of the twenties into the Great Depression. The transformation from Military Prison to Federal Penitentiary finished in 1933 and from there on out, the military days were over. Several areas were reconstructed for the new use. In particular, the houses on Officers’s Row, save for the Doctor’s House, were torn down and transformed into gardens. New rules about plants were implemented, such as nothing could be higher than waist height, lest prisoners hide behind the shrubs. And prisoners were dangerous, meaning that instead of a steady stream of gardening labor, there weren’t a lot of people to maintain the vast gardens.
Gardening itself was going through a severe transformation and lack of resources. The Great Depression brought most gardening advancements to a standstill. There wasn’t enough money for most Americans to eat, let alone pay for the expensive upkeep of a vibrant garden. If the crops themselves couldn’t survive, how were ornamental plants supposed to?
Those that were lucky enough to afford a garden did have some trends, however. Large rose gardens were popular in the 1930s. Another popular trend was a focus on vegetables and food gardens. If the stores weren’t providing enough food to eat, perhaps your own little plot of land could. Hedges were sculpted in a boxier style, like the styles of the 1900s and 1910s. Plants such as hydrangeas, lilacs, and hostas were also popular as a pop of color.
Overall, however, the gardens were a luxury few could afford. What was once a sprawling, beautiful, lush garden could be transformed into a scraggly plot of dust in a matter of weeks. People had to cut corners in order to survive and gardens were among the first things to go. There were no longer garden parties in outdoor salons or front yards that promoted public space and friendly interaction. Everyone was trying to survive.
Still, Alcatraz does have some 1930s touches sprinkled throughout. Hydrangeas are prominent in the Rose Terrace and a particularly beautiful one is found along the walkway up to the cell house. There are also roses found in Officers’ Row, the Rose Terrace, and along the terraces on the West Side. It took a while for gardens to recover from the Great Depression, but they would. They would come back brighter and more beautiful than ever.